by Ewald Banse
Ewald Banse (23 Mayıs 1883 – 31 Ekim 1953) üstün ırklar teziyle Nazi Almanya’sının saldırgan politikası için dayanak sağlayan bir coğrafyacıdır. Atatürk’e yakınlığıyla da bilinen Banse, bir de Türkiye Coğrafyası kitabı yazmıştır. Die Türkei / eine moderne Geographie isimli kitabı 1919’da yayınlanmıştır. Kitabın Paphlagonien başlıklı bölümünün (sayfa: 82-86) İngilizce çevirisini aşağıda bulacaksınız. Şu anda Türkçe çevirisi üzerinde çalışıyorum. Osmanlının son dönemlerinde bölgenin sosyo ekonomik yapısıyla ve özellikle Safranbolu ile ilgili bilgiler önemlidir.
This country differs from its western and eastern neighbor landscapes by broad plateaus, whose fixed Paleozoic and Tertiary mass, a narrow cretaceous mountain belt ranges compress against the sea. It is possible that the low rainfall behind the coastal trains (below 500 mm) was not strong enough to reshape the plateau character to those expressed mountain and valley forms by run-off water, the Bithynia and East Pontus excel. To the difference between the chain- and plateau-like landforms as well as the approximately concurrent with them the forest and steppe country join as continued same phenomenon in Bithynia. The occurrence of three depths and central valley lines that perhaps prefigured already in diluvial hydrograph, only through the subsequent ground movement and erosion following them attained its present course, drastically. They are also the main strip of grain farming land and almost the only important transits courses. Clods between them make travel almost impossible cross snowy paths in winter until May, and the transverse valleys are almost all impassable. Therefore, the rather sparsely populated country is still unknown for us in many respects, and its residents are considered to be raw and unworldly. They used to be called by the old Hellenic colonists of the shore strip; the people who talk barbaric (παφλάζЫν) whose name have remained Paphlagonia.
The coastal zone is the roughest part of the country with steep and often without a landing beach, the mountains shoots way up from the depths of the sea. Only occasional cape or on the narrow strip of sand or the narrow estuaries found by the old emigrant Millets colonies give chance to constitute their towns and factories. Today maritime is vulnerable in these, for not very good anchor points secure against the prevailing storms at sea for weeks and to avoid the inhospitable raids. Besides the port poverty the poor lines of communication hindered the flourishing of places on the coast. Only towards the end of the last century, the governments made a paved road from the port Ineboli to Kastamuni and to some interior settlements and consequently the exports have been significantly increased. Since then more than four hundred steamers each year with two thousand sailors on their boards run to the colorful Turkish town with numerous sawmills work for coastal mountain forests and to collect the tiftik of the highlands as well as fruit and vegetables. The port town of Sinope with about ten thousand Greek and Turkish inhabitants was the old Mithridates’s residence and whose peninsula was described as sweeter than the labia of the houris of paradise and its isthmus much better and slimmer than the slimmest waist of a young man, by medieval chroniclers. At Sinope and the foreshore is wider and more fertile than elsewhere, but it also lacks good inland roads. The coastal mountains here can be passed only few months a year because of excessive rainfall and particularly sharp slopes. The same is valid for the departure ports of the western coast like the town of Eregli and Songuldak ports which is developed in 1899. Both carry large amount of coal which is obtained from the mines of Heraclea in the local coastal range, which is in a folded Paleocene chalk mountains to the Bosporus. The export of 800 000 tones per year.
Behind the coast weakly vegetated foothills or gray rock heights rise, on which still thrive few lemur and then rise throughout the steep, pathless mountain walls up especially in the west, one above the other, black walls of oak and beech, of spruce and birch and sycamore forests, between which the same unhealed wounds gape the roaring pathless gorges of river shores. Fields of grain and maize, millet and vegetables smaller creek slings approach to small wooden villages where you can find, the fur of the brown bear which give serious damage to the livestock as numerous found almost house by house in the forest and at the torrents numerous sawmills (“factory”) thunder to meet the demand for wood of the Turkish fleet together with buffalos dragging the bar on chains. Settlements in the coastal mountains are of course very loosely distributed and often consists only desolate terrains which are grouped in a wide radius around a bazaar. Only in the west, where the land forms are to loosen up a bit to Bithynia, a larger community has formed, the small Bartin, which annually for about two million mark wood and also fruits, vegetables, and by the mouth of his little river of the same name much poultry (almost one million) raised.
If you have exceeded the narrow forest zone of the coastal range, (in the middle of the country, for example, even a little south of the abandoned, but not depleted copper mines of Küre) the dry inland landscape starts. With their gray, rugged, yet mild -shaped lime heights, where the wind blows hard in the stalks of the herbs and the branches of bushes. Only the water branches more coniferous forest still pleased the eye or at higher hilltops for which the foothills of the marine clouds, but not the ax of the woodcutter still suffices. The valleys, however, open up a bit more and in the northernmost fracture and culture line blossomed in the lower reaches of the Boli Su and from the source valleys of Bartin Su and Dewrikian Irmak frequently interrupted, but between the arid plateaus but most important consequence of cultural havens. The same fresh flowers cover stony wall houses. South of them, the plateau character Paphlagonia comes to full training with wide yellow corrugated chalk boards and steppe pastures and stately herds of valuable Angora goats blooms, whose silky hair under the name tiftik is traded. Where bush or even forest islands at fomented slopes, where shy refuge of yoruk tribes migrate and where Kurds from Galatia emerging, and where they hang around even nomadic Armenians (elekdschi, i.e. sieve maker) with their sheep, horses and cattle. The core of the plateau country is the uplands of the two Iflani. Your horizon is often cut of a hard limestone crust, which removes the underlying soil in many places the action of the plant world. The south-facing valleys canyon landscapes true form with a sequence of steps of terraces and vertical walls., only the north-eastern part of the well-watered grain and rich valley high valley gau Dadai is better settled. As far as this whole landscape shape and extends toward the south which will certainly interrupted twice by long west-east culture sinks.
The drain of Aratsch Tchai and the Gok Irmak is the economic backbone of Paphlagonia , because in their longitudinal valleys is an abundance of water available, which is revealed from the groundwater levels of the lateral lime board in this collection tube. So has been able to accumulate a good layer of humus on the flat valley bottoms, who extensively irrigated diverse crop yields. Wheat, cotton, fruit and rice on the lower reaches of the Gok Irmak, tobacco in the upper reaches, sericulture, wine and tobacco cultivation and saffron production on Aratsch Su and Ulu Tchai / these are the most valuable products of this valley strip. Moreover, since he is the straightest land connection between Samsun and Constantinople, several cities then has to develop in its trace. Of them Safranboli the western suburb of Paphlagonia has become the center of the Anatolian saffron culture based on the gorgeous yellow crocus blooming and carries large amounts of the much used in oriental cuisine and pharmacy spice to Constantinople. The city expressed their gardens and bridge spanned rivers in the folds of several valleys, at the cliff faces, climbing up house on the house. It counts some 20,000 Greek inhabitants. The water mills recycle and tanneries in the products of the fields and forests and carries from saffron to grain, fruit and skins on the paved road out of Bartin. About as much like the population of the Vilayet Kastamuni its capital, whose dark red gabled roofs and green treetops, pressed into a pale yellow hoop height, make a haunting impression. The close-in boiler situation increases the heat of the short summer to unbearable degrees and makes the nearly nine months lasting winter with its snow flurries worse than it is already there at an altitude of 800 m without the many furs and thick-lined dresses in the only warmed by braziers rooms use the people a lot. Since the climate is still too high temperature, the city will often left stay as exiles. Narrow and oppressive as the whole aspect is also the fanaticism of the local Moslems, under which assets confraternities to exist no less than twelve different dervishes. The resident which was once considered very productive finished today to pretty calico prints, sail cloths, leather work, copper devices, including hand daggers, ropes, and rain-proof white coats and blankets from wool. Those are industries, as they need and required for a cattle rich country. The southernmost of the three inner Paphlagonian cultural lines which is separated from the middle also by steppe -like and bushy willow rich plateaus, possesses in the upper reaches of the Ulu Tchai, in Dewres Irmak and a piece of the lower course of the Halys a similar string of cultural oases with identical products . Here goes the old post road from Stamboul to the east, which was committed to the opening of steam navigation to Trebizond by a large part of the Persian export caravans. The line differs from the mean by the fact that the accompanying very high pass (Ilkas Dar 2350 m) grows richer forest jewelry, and that she can not develop a major urban center, what probably the remoteness of the coast is to blame. The Halys breaks through the plateau in tight tale aligned scenes, which combine picturesque, in the forms of rock, water and forest constantly changing stimulus often with lack of space for topsoil and routes. His falling is to be strong and water level changes too often, but that he could serve for navigation.
The rainfall declines in the south down to an annual rate of 400 mm. The steppe finally enters into their right, and only of the highest ridges look dark yet, but already sparse spruce groves on the gypsum- rich highlands down. The inhabitants are mostly Turkmen and Kurds already, and her life takes place in the changing forms of wintry valley and the summer yaila life. Crops thrive in the harsh winters very high surface air only fueled and carefully irrigated valley floors , as in the town Changri , which degrades the salt already known of old rock salt mines and besides wool , and yellow berries performs in larger quantities. In these areas already accomplished the transition to the inner Asia Minor.
Thus Paphlagonia is divided into number of mutually very different zones: the evergreen coastline with small ports, three agricultural belt with farming communities and industrial cities (weaving), the forest and mineral-rich coastal mountain plateau three agricultural belts with bush steppe and livestock. Due to extraordinary difficulties arisen by the geological forms and transportation on the roads are the reasons of stamp of backwardness. Due to Islam and fanaticism – lively social life only on the coast, gradual devaluation of livestock due to inbreeding and excessive usage of bad roads – predominance of large estates with culpably and glum crofters system. In some coastal areas, the villages still live in commons, where the field every year from one merges into the other, which keeps everyone negative drives for improvement. It is one of only about three hundredths of Christians, and the population is among the most reliable subjects of the Porte. It provides an excellent soldier and has material in connection therewith most – syphilis sick. Every Turkish official who is into the Vilayet displaced Kastamuni, anywhere, anytime using their own eating and drinking utensils and cleans itself almost always.