Yungang2

Qimin Yaoshu (Halkın Sağlık ve Mutluluğu için Gerekli ve Yararlı Teknikler)

Yungang2.jpgYungang Grottosu
(By Marcin Białek – Own work, GFDL, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php curid=11144033)

Kuzey Wei döneminde bir memur olan Jia Sixie tarafından tamamlandığı bilinen Qimin Yaoshu bazı kaynaklara göre 544 yılında tamamlanmıştır. Kitap 10 ciltte, toplam 92 bölümden oluşmakta ve Çin’in 1500 yıllık tarım, bahçecilik, ağaçlandırma, ipekçilik, hayvancılık, veteriner ilaçları, üreme, mayalandırma, yemek pişirme, saklama, çorak arazi ıslahı gibi teknoloji ve kültürel birikimlerini derlemektedir. Kitabın 7., 8. ve 9. bölümleri yemek pişirme ile ilgilidir ve toplamda mayalandırma teknikleri, baharatlardan yahnilere, kızartmalara ve eriştelere, oradan ekmeklere 280 reçete verdiği bilinmektedir. Oldukça ayrıntılı ve doğru miktarlarıyla doğru malzemeler, hazırlama teknikleri yanında sunum ve sunum estetiği anlatılmaktadır. Shijing 食經 (Mutfak kuralları, 110 reçete) ve Shici 食次 (Mutfak prosedürleri, 50 reçete) isimli iki eski yemek kitabı -büyük olasılıkla- Qimin Yaoshu’ya kaynak olarak alınmıştır. Bazı mezar odalarında bulunan yazmalardan, Qimin Yaoshu’da yer alan reçetelerin bazılarının geçmişlerinin çok eskilere gittiği anlaşılmaktadır.


Qimin Yaoshu’deki Shijing Reçeteleri

Bölüm 7

Kesim 66 笨麴并酒 (Kalın maya ve şarap)
66.1 作白醪酒法 (Filtre edilmemiş beyaz şarap)
66.2 作白醪酒法 (Beyaz filtre edilmemiş şarap)
66.3 冬米明酒法 (Kış tahıllarından berrak şarap)
66.4 夏米明酒法 (Yaz tahıllarından berrak şarap)
66.5 朗陵何公夏封清酒法 (Lanling’den Sayın He için ağzı kapalı. yaz şarabı)
66.6 愈瘧酒法 (Yüksek ateş ve titreme sendromu tedavisi için şarap)
66.7 作酃酒法 (Ling şarabı)
66.8 作和酒法 (Kupaj şarap)
66.9 作夏雞鳴酒法 (Yaz horozu ötüşü şarabı)
66.10 作審酒法 (Shen1 şarabı)
66.11 柯杝酒法 (Çekirdek şarabı)

 

Kesim 67 法酒 (Standart şarap)

67.1 七月七日作法酒 (Yedinci ayın. yedinci günü standart şarap)

67.2 法酒方 (Standart şarap)

67.3 三九酒法 (3-9 şarabı)

 

Bölüm 8

Kesim 70 作醬等法 (Sos ve benzerlerini yapmak için reçeteler)

70.1 作麥醬法 (Buğday sosu)

70.2 作榆子醬法 (Karaağaç tohumu)

70.3 魚醬法 (Balık sosu)

 

Kesim 71 作醋法 (Sirke yapmak için reçete)

71.1 作大豆千歲苦酒法 (Bin yıllık soya acı şarabı)

71.2 作小豆千歲苦酒法 (Bin yıllık adzuki fasulyesi2 acı şarabı)

71.3 作小麥苦酒法 (Buğday acı şarabı)

71.4 水苦酒法 (Su acı şarabı)

71.5 卒成苦酒法 (Hızlı acı şarap)

71.6 烏梅苦酒法 (Kara erik acı şarabı)

71.7 蜜苦酒法 (Bal acı şarabı)

71.8 外國苦酒法 (Yabancı acı şarap)

 Kesim 72 作豉法 (Fermente fasulye3 yapmak için reçeteler)

72.1 作豉法 (Fermente fasulye)

72.2 作家理食豉法 (Ev yapımı yenilebilir fermente fasulye)

Kesim 73 八和齏 (Sekiz baharatlı çeşni)

73.1 [Mevsimlik uygun çeşni malzemelerini belirterek]
73.2 作芥醬法 (Hardal sosu)
Kesim 74 作魚鮓 (Fermente balık yapımı)
74.1 作蒲鮓法 (Hazanbel4 ile fermente balık)
74.2 作魚鮓法 (Fermente balık)
74.3 作長沙蒲鮓法 (Hazanbelle Changsha usulü fermente balık)
74.4 作夏月魚鮓法 (Yazın fermente balık)
Kesim 76 羹臛法 (Çorba ve yahni reçeteleri)
76.1 作芋子酸羹法 (Gövelez5 ile ekşi güveç)
76.2 作鴨臛法 (Ördek güveci)
76.3 作虌臛法 (Yumuşak kabuklu kaplumbağa güveci)
76.4 作豬蹄酸羹一斛法 (1 hu6 ekşili domuz paçası çorbası)
76.5 作羊蹄臛法 (Koyun paçası güveci)76.6 作兔臛法 (Tavşan güveçi)
76.7 作酸羹法 (Ekşili çorba)
76.8 作胡羹法 (Göçebe7 çorbası)
76.9 作胡麻羹法 (Susam çorbası)
76.10 作瓠葉羹法 (Su kabağı yaprakları ile çorba)
76.11 作雞羹法 (Tavuk çorbası)76.12 作鴨羹法 (Bambu filizi turşusu ile ördek çorbası)76.13 肺 (Akciğerlerli pirinç güveci)
76.14 作羊盤腸 解法 (Dilimlenerek servis edilen koyun bumbarı)
76.15 羊節解法 (Koyun kuşbaşı8)
76.16 羌煮法 (Qiang kabilesi usulü haşlama)
(466-67)
76.17 蓴羹 (Ebegümeci çorbası)
76.18 醋菹鵝鴨羹 (Ekşi turşu ile kaz ve ördek çorbası)
76.19 菰菌魚羹 (Taze shiitake mantarı ile balık çorbası)
76.20 筍 魚羹 (Bambu filizi turşusuyla balık çorbası)
76.21 鱧魚臛 (Murrel güveci)
76.22 鯉魚臛 (Sazan güveci)
76.23 臉 (Kan ve bağırsak güveci)
76.24 鱧魚湯 (Kalın dilimlenmiş murrel güveci)
76.25 臛 (Yayın güveci)
76.26 槧淡 (Hafif pişmiş ağaç-kulağı mantarı9)
76.27 腎 (İşkembe ve böbrek)
76.28 爛熟 (Lime lime olana kadar et güveci)
Kesim 77 蒸 (Buharlama ve güveçte pişirme)
77.1 蒸熊法 (Buharda ayı)
77.2 一本 (Farklı reçete)
77.3 蒸 法 (Buharda domuz yavrusu)

77.4 蒸雞法 (Buharda tavuk)

Kesim 78 腤煎消法 (Karışık, haşlama, tek kaynatma, kızartma ve kavurma reçeteleri)

78.1 鮓法 (Haşlanmış fermente balık)
78.2 五侯 法 (Beş Lort usulü karışık haşlama)
78.3 純 魚法 (Sade balık karışık haşlaması)
78.4 腤雞 (Tavuk haşlaması)
78.5 腤白肉 (Et haşlaması)
78.6 腤魚法 (Balık haşlaması)
78.7 蜜純煎魚法 (Bal ile marine edilmiş balık kızartması)
78.8 鴨消 (Kırma küçük yaban ördekleri kızartması)
78.9 鴨煎法 (Ördek kızartması)
Kesim 79 菹綠 (Salamura ve yeşil10 et)
79.1 白菹 (Düz salamura et)
79.2 菹肖法 (Kıyılmış sebze turşusu)
79.3 蟬脯菹法 (Kurutulmuş ağustos böceği turşusu)

79.4 綠肉法 (Yeşil et)

Bölüm 9

Kesim 80 炙法 (Kızartmalar)
80.1 作跳丸炙法 (Sıçrayan toplar kavurması)
80.2 炙 法 (Kelebek açılmış yavru domuz kızartması)

80.3 炙 法 (Dalyan köfte kızartması)
80.4 銜炙法 (Lokma kızartması)
80.5 作餅炙法 (Balık köftesi pane)
80.6 釀炙白魚法 (Culter balığı dolması kızartması)
80.7 腩炙 (Marine etme ve kızartma)

 

Kesim 81 作 奧糟苞 (Mayalandırılmış et, confit, şarap küspesinde et ve sarılmış et )

81.1 作犬 法 (Kıyılmış köpek eti)

Kesim 82 餅法 (Ekmek ve erişte)

82.1 作餅酵法 (Ekmek mayası)
82.2 作白餅法 (Yassı ekmek)
82.3 作燒餅法 (Ateşte pişmiş ekmek)
82.4 髓餅 (İlik ekmeği)
Kesim 83 (Mantı ve kek)
83.1 粟黍法 (Darı mantısı)
Kesim 86 飧飯 (Püre ve lapa)
86.1 作麵飯法 (Un bulamacı)
86.2 作粳米糗糒法 (Pişmiş ve kurutulmuş, ince ve iri kırılmış pirinç)
86.3 粳米棗糒法 (Hünnaplı pişmiş ve kurutulmuş pirinç)
86.4 菰米飯法 (Yabani pirinç)
86.5 胡飯法 (Göçebe usulü pişmiş tahıl)
Kesim 88 作菹藏生菜法 (Taze sebzeleri saklamak ve turşu yapmak)
88.1 作葵菹法 (Ebegümeci turşusu)
88.2 作菘鹹菹法 (Lahana ve kereviz salamura ve turşusu)
88.3 Z作醋菹法 (Sirke ile turşu kurmak)
88.4 作菹消法 (İnce kıyılmış sebze turşusu)
88.5 藏瓜法 (Kavun turşusu)
88.6 藏越瓜法 (Yue kavunu turşusu)
88.7 藏梅瓜法 (Erikli kavun turşusu)
88.8 樂安令徐肅藏瓜法 (Tibet usulü kavun turşusu)
88.9 藏蕨 (Eğrelti konservesi)
88.10 蕨菹 (Eğrelti turşusu)

 

Kesim 89 餳餔 (Malt şekeri ve rafine edilmemiş malt şekeri)

89.1 作飴法 (Malt şekeri jölesi)

 

Reçete sayısı: 110

 

Qimin Yaoshu’deki Shici Reçeteleri

Bölüm 8

Kesim 77 蒸 (Buğulama ve güveçte pişirme)
77.1 熊蒸 (Buharda ayı)
77.2 [başka tarifi]
77.3 [başka tarifi]
77.4 裹蒸生魚 (Buğulama, kapama taze balık)
77.5 毛蒸魚菜 (Tüylü buğulama balık ve sebze)
77.6 [başka tarifi]
77.7 蒸藕法 (Buğulama nilüfer kökü için)

Bölüm 9

Kesim 80 炙法 (Kızartmalar)
80.1 炙 (Kızartılmış lokmalar)
80.2 擣炙 (Kızartılmış köfte)
80.3 餅炙 (Kızartılmış balık köftesi)
80.4 炙用鵝鴨臆肉 (Kızartılmış kaz ve ördek göğsü)

80.5 炙蚶 (Kızartılmış deniz kabuklusu11)
80.6 炙蠣 (Kızartma istiridye)
80.7 炙車熬 (Dev istiridye kızartma)

80.8 炙魚 (Kızartma balık)

Kesim 81 作 奧糟苞 (Mayalanmış çömlekte et, confit, şarap tortusuyla et ve sarılmış et)
81.1 苞 法 (Dilimlenmiş sarılı et)
81.2 [başka tarifi]
81.3 [başka tarifi]

Kesim 82 餅法 (ekmek ve erişte)
82.1 粲 (Öğütülmüş pirinç keki)
82.2 膏環 (Domuz yağı halkaları)
82.3 雞鴨子餅 (Tavuk ve ördek yumurtası keki)
Kesim 83 (Sarılı köfte ve kek)
83.1 煮 (Sarılı kek)
Kesim 84 (Un bulamacı)
84.1 煮 (Un bulamacı)
Kesim 86 飧飯 (lapa ve pişmiş tahıl)
86.1 折米飯 (Pişmiş kabuksuz tahıl)12
Kesim 87 素食 (Saf mutfak)
87.1 韭羹法 (Taze soğan ve Çin pırasası çorbası)
87.2 瓠羹 (Su kabağı çorbası)
87.3 油豉 (Yağlı fermente fasulye)
87.4 膏煎紫菜 (Yağda kızartılmış mor yosun)
87.5 薤白蒸 (Buharda Çin arpacık soğanının beyaz kısımları)
87.6 飯 (Tereyağlı pirinç eriştesi)
87.7 蜜薑 (Ballı zencefil)
Kesim 88 作菹藏生菜法 (Turşu ve taze sebzeleri saklamak için)
88.1 女麴 (Ekşi maya)88.2 釀瓜菹酒法 (Şarapla fermente edilmiş kavun turşusu)
88.3 瓜菹法 (Kavun turşusu)
88.4 瓜芥菹 (Hardallı kavun turşusu)
88.5 湯菹法 (Et sulu turşu)
88.6 苦 紫菜菹法 (Acılı bambu filizleri ve mor deniz yosunu turşusu)
88.7 竹菜菹法 (Bambu filizi turşusu)
88.8菹法(Fishwort13 turşusu)
88.9 菘根 菹法 (Kereviz, lahana sapı turşusu)
88.10 熯菹法 (Su teresi14 turşusu)
88.11 胡芹小蒜菹法 (Melekotu ve sarımsak turşusu)
88.12 菘根蘿蔔菹法 (Kereviz, lahana sapı ve turp turşusu)
88.13 紫菜菹法 (Mor deniz yosunu turşusu)
88.14 蜜薑法 (Ballı zencefil)
88.15 梅瓜法 (Erikli kavun turşusu)
88.16 梨菹法 (Armut turşusu)
88.17 木耳菹 (Ağaç kulağı mantarı turşusu)

 

Kesim 89 餳餔 (Malt şekeri ve rafine edilmemiş malt şekeri)

89.1 白繭糖法 (Malt şekeri içinde beyaz koza)
89.2 黃繭糖法 (Malt şekeri sarı koza)

Reçete sayısı: 50

Notlar:

1 Çin şarap tanrısı

2 Börülce (bezelye olabilir)

3 Soya olmalı

4 Acorus calamus

5 Colocasia esculenta

6 Antik Çin hacim ölçü birimi: yaklaşık 50 L

7 Etnik Han olmayan

8 Kıyma olabilir

9 Auricularia auricula-judae

10 Kurutulmuş et olmalı

11 Arca inflata

12 Döğülerek kabuğu çıkarılmış yarma olmalı

13 Houttuynia Cordata

14 Nasturtium

Safranbolu – Kıran Köy’de Büyük Yangın

 

12.12.2006 280.jpg

 

1859 yılında Safranbolu – Kıran Köy’de büyük bir yangın olduğu ve Rum evlerinin önemli bir kısmının yandığı bilinmektedir. Ancak, Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri’nde bulunan 365/92, 376/19 ve 397/44 numaralı 3 adet belgeden yangının korkunç boyutu açık bir şekilde görülmektedir. Yangında Kıran Köy’de bulunan 450 adet haneden ancak 50 bab hane kurtulabilmiştir.
Devleti-i Ali yangından zarar görenlere zahire yardımı yapılması ve “serian” uygun yerlere yerleştirilmelerini, gerekli giderlerin milli hazineden sağlanacağı bildirilmektedir. Ayrıca, Kastamonu Sancağı’nın Dahiliye Nazırlığı’na yazdığı yazılardan yangının bu denli büyük hasara neden olmasının nedeni evlerin çatılarında kullanılan bedavralar olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Gerçekten de Kıran Köy büyük yangınından sonra çevrede çeşitli kiremitlikler kurulmuş ve Safranbolu evlerine kiremit döşenmiştir. İlginç olan bu süreçte “Depçan nam kimesne”nin dilekçesinin etkin olmasıdır. Müteveffa Debçan’ın şikayeti, kendi evine kiremit kaplasa bile diğer evlerin bedavralı olması nedeniyle yangın riskinin her zaman olacağı yönündedir. Yazışmalar sonucunda, halkın uygun fiyatlarla kiremit temini sağlanacak ve baharla birlikte Safranbolu’ya gereken kiremitçiler gönderilecektir.

Yine bu bağlamda 166/60 numaralı belgeden o dönemde Safranbolu’da tek bir yangın tulumbası bile olmadığı anlaşılmaktadır.

***

Belge 1
Kastamonu Valisi’ne

Zağferanbolu Kazâsı’na tâbi‘ Kıran karyesi derûnunda kâin Danagölü Suyu demekle marûf nehrin yemîn ve yesârında İslâm ve Hristiyan mahalleleri olup mevcûd olan hânelerin üzerleri kiremid yerine pedavra tahtası pûşîdeli olduğuna binâen bu kere Hristiyan mahallesinden zuhûr eden ateş pedavraların üzerlerine nüzûl ile sirâyet etmesinden nâşi dört yüz elli hâneden ibâret olan mahalleden ancak elli bâb hâne kurtulabilmiş ve bu kere inşâ olunmakda olan hânelerin üzerine ashâbı tarafından kemâ fi’s-sâbık pedavra döşenmek üzere bulunmuş idiği ve bunun mazarratı meydanda iken tekrar inşası câiz olamayıp maamâfîh kendisi hânesine kiremid pûşide edecek ise de etrafındaki hâneler pedavralı olduğu hâlde bir semere hâsıl olamayacağı beyânıyla bunun men‘iyle umûmen kiremid ferş etdirilmesi mezkûr hâneler ashâbından Depçan nam kimesne tarafından bâ-arzûhâl istidâ kılınmakdan nâşi keyfiyet Meclis-i Valâ’ya lede’l-havâle bu makûle mazarrat îrâs edecek şeylerin terki icâb-ı hâlden ve muhterik mahallerin sûret-i muntazamada inşâsı kâide-i meriyeden bulunduğuna binâen işbu yapılacak ebniyenin sirayet-i nâr mahzûrundan masûn olmak üzere her tarafda câri olduğu vechile kiremid örtdürülmesi için ahaliye tenbihât ve teşvîkât ifâsıyla beraber tevsî ve tesviye-i tarîk maddelerine vesâir teferruâtına riâyet olunması ve eğer oralara karîb mahalde kiremidhâne olmayıp da mahâll-i baîdeden masarıf-ı kesîre ile celb ve nakli lâzım gelerek ashâb-ı ebniyece müşkilât anlaşıldığı halde kiremidci celbiyle civâr ve münasib mahalde imâl etdirilmesi gibi veyahûd sâir dürlü velhâsıl nasıl tedbir ittihâzı muktezî ise harîkzedegân-ı ahali [için] lüzûmu olan kiremidin ehven bahâ ile satdırılması zımmında teshîlât ve muâvenet-i mukteziyenin tamâmen icrâ kılınması husûslarının savb-ı valâlarına bildirilmesi tezekkür kılınmış olmağla ol vechile icâbının icrâ ve inhâsına himmet buyrulması siyâkında şukka. 15 Safer 1276 (13 Eylül 1859)

A.MKT.UM. 365/92

***

Belge 2

Kastamonu Valisi’ne

Zağferanborlu Kazâsı’na tâbi Kıran Karyesinde vukû bulan harîkde Rum milletinin ebniyeleri muhterik olarak kendileri şuraya buraya dağılıp şâyân-ı âtıfet ve muâvenet bulundukları Rum Patrikhanesi tarafından bâ-takrîr istidâ ve bu bâbda olan Rûmiyyü’l-ibâre mahzar takdîm ve isrâ olunmaktan nâşi keyfiyet Meclis-i Valâ’ya lede’l-havâle vukû bulan harîkden dolayı karye-i muzkûre ahalisinin musâb ve mutazarır oldukları gösterilmiş ise de izâhât-ı kâfiye olmadığından Hrıstiyan mahallesi külliyen mi muhterik olmuşdur yoksa bir mikdar hâne mi yanmışdır, ashâbının birazı erbâb-ı iktidârdan veyâ mecmûu âciz ve fakir makûledenmidir? Buralarının zâhire ihrâcı ve Hazine-i Celile’nin ahvâl-i malûmesinin muvâzenesi ile ba’dehû iktizâsına bakılmak üzere bunlar hakkında ne vechile muâvenet olunmak lazım gelir buralarının serîan bit-tahkîk izâhen ba-mazbata iş’ârı ve sâye-i mekârimvâyei cenab-ı padişâhîde bunların vadî-i perişânîde kalması layık olmayacağından şimdiden kendilerinin münâsib yerlere yerleştirilmesi ve esbâb-ı âsâyiş ve istirâhatlerinin istihsâli her nasıl tedbire mütevakkıf ise bi’l-icrâ haklarında lâzım gelen muâvenet ve teshîlâtın tamamî-i ifâsı husûsunun savb-ı vâlâlarına bildirlmesi tezekkür olunmuş olmağla ber-minvâl-i muharrer iktizâsının icrâ ve inhâsına himmet buyurulması siyâkında şukka. 9 Rebiülâhir 1276 (5 Kasım 1859)

A.MKT.UM. 376/19

***

 

Belge 3
Kastamonu Mutasarrıfı’na

Zağferanbolu Kazâsı’na tabî Kıran karyesinde muhterik olan Hristiyan hânelerinden inşâ olunmakda olanlarının üzerine kiremid pûşîde etdirilmesi husûsuna dair gönderilen tahrîrâta cevâben Kastamonu Meclisi’nin tevârüd eden mazbatasında mevsim-i şitânın hulûlü münâsebetiyle kiremid imâli mümkün olamayacağından mevsim-i bahar hulûlünde kiremitci ustası celbiyle iktizâsının icrâ kılınacağı inhâ ve iş’âr ve kazâ-i mezkûr meclisinin bu bâbda olan mazbatası tesyâr olunmakdan nâşî keyfîyet Meclis-i Valâ’ya lede’l-havâle siyâk-ı iş’âr muvafık-ı hâl ve maslahatdan olduğundan ve evvel bahar dahî takarrüb eylediğinden mevsimi hulûlünde hemen kiremitci ustasının celbiyle beraber kiremidlerin imâl ve ferş ettirilmesi zımnında muâvenet ve teshîlât-ı mukteziyenin icrâ kılınması husûsunun savb-ı saâdetlerine te’kidi tezekkür olunmuş olmağla iktizâsının icrâsı hususuna himmet eylemeleri siyâkında şukka. 28 Receb 1276 (20 Şubat 1860)

A.MKT.UM. 397/44

***

Belge 4
Maliye Nazâret-i Celîlesine

Viranşehir sancağına tâbi’ Zağferanborlu’da vukû’ bulunan harîk keyfiyetine dâir Kastamonu Meclisi’nin vârid olan mazbatası manzûr-ı sâmileri buyrulmak üzere leffen gönderilmiş olup melfûf mahallî mazbatasına nazaran orada tulumba bulunmadığı anlaşılmış ve bu makûle büyücek kazalarda el’ân itfâiye bulunması lâzımeden görünmüş olduğundan ahvâl ve emsâline tatbîkan mahal-i mezkûra bir aded tulumba irsâl olunmak üzere iktizâsının icrâ ve ifâdesi mütevakkıf-ı himem-i behiyyeleridir.
1276 Safer 28 (26 Eylül 1859)

A.MKT.MHM. 166/60

 

Not: Bu belgeleri sağlayan Katar Müzeleri, Sergiler Koordinatörü Sayın Selmin Kangal’a teşekkür ederim.

 

İstanbul’da Kullanılacak Kerestelerin Enva’ına Dair

Ahmet Refik Altınay’ın Onuncu Asr-ı Hicride İstanbul Hayatı (T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı, Kültür Eserleri, Ankara, 2000) isimli kitabında Bab-ı Hümayun’un karar ve Mimar Başı’na gözetimi için tebliğ ettiği 2 adet liste bulunmaktadır. Kolayca anlaşılır bir şekilde derlediğim bu listeleri ilişikte bulacaksınız.

İstanbul’da Kullanılacak Kerestelerin Enva’ına Dair

Karar şöyle bitiyor:

“…emir idüb buyurdum ki vardukda bu hususda kemali ikdam ve ihtimam ile mukayyed olub ve andan kesüb getüren kimesnelere gereği gibi tenbih ve te’kid eyliyesin ki minbaad getürdük­leri kerestei vechi meşruh üzre tayin olunan zirâdan eksük kesmiyüb ve kerestenin dahi âlâsın kesüb getüreler Şöyleki emir olunandan eksük kesüb ve âlâsın getûrmiyeler gereği gibi haklarından gelinüb hakaret olunmak mukarrerdir Ana göre mukayyed olub emrim üzre zikrolunan kerestei tayin olunan zirâdan eksük getürtmiyeler Ve Bu emri şerifimi sicilli mahfuza kayıd eyliyesin ki minbaad dahi mazmunu hümayunile amel olunub ana muhalif iş eylemiyeler (Mimar başına verildi)* Fi 22 Zilkade 975 (1567)

*Mimar Sinan

 

Osmanlı Evi’nin Evrimi / Anadolu – Osmanlı Sentezinde Strüktür ve Form

Karaağaç Melling.jpg

AHŞAP YAPILARDA KORUMA VE ONARIM SEMPOZYUMU 4, 26-27 NİSAN 2016, İSTANBUL’da İkinci gün sunacağım bildiri için seçme kaynakça:

 

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Travels and Surveys in the Northern Asia-Minor* by Richard Leonhard

* Translated by İbrahim Canbulat from Leonhard, R. Papahlagonia / Reisen und Forschungen im Nördlichen Kleinasien, Dieter Reimer, Berlin, 1915, pages 137-147. Place names are left as in German transliterations. This text is still under editing.

About Ovadjumasi after Kodjanos

11.X.

Many farmers from the area of ​​Zafranboli come already for tomorrow’s market. For the first time again I see four-wheeled car, and also to the axis not the full wooden discs, but wheels with rims and spokes of wood.

Cheleby-koi[*] is located 1 1/2 km from the bazaar. We march thru the southwest valley out of Kuru getschid (dry = ford) a yoke which leads to southward. We adhere to the hills to the west which stretches north with a densely populated plane, to the south the land falls to the basin of Zafranboli. The path there leads and turns off over the nearby village Ovatschi which is uninhabited and desolate. In Chodjadjyk we are still in 835 m height. From here the terrain falls gradually towards the basin of Zafranboli, which is about 450 m deep. Ahead towards the northwest, the terrain rises gently to Olos Dagh, while in the West at least 500 meters higher, rising abruptly Isbadagh closes the horizon.

The road turns unceasingly along the sling of Olos-Dagh, which is heavily wooded and ride beginning approximately at the same height, valley walls high above a river, which is at Tschapar-özü (probably the Sapandjiler Tschihatcheffs) valley with a coming from the south depth[†]. Then the trail descends and ascends finally into steep curves for Ova-chai, to the south of the suspension lowers the path of Zafranboli itself. Olos-chai meets with the road at the left bank leaving convenient land for Ova Djumasi (315 m), which covers a Djami and Han. A bit further down leads on the right side Olos-chai, winding through a deep valley. As the horses are very tired of the descents, so we stay in the Han of Ova-djumasi, passed by the many farmers to the market after Eflani-bazar. At night noon raises a heavy rain and storm, which also continues for the night.

12.X.

Ovadjumasi must provide in good weathers an incomparable view, but unfortunately the rain did not stop. Since Eflanibazar, I could not have fresh bread, barely pulled out of the oven half-baked dough was uncomfortable, so I used the day to starvation, and succeeded better than the host of the Han could offer nothing but tomatoes. With which how Handji can live is not clear to me. The farmers buy a cup of coffee 5 para[‡] and are saved outside they crept into their carts, despite the pouring rain. Their horses were also outside overnight. It rained all day through until midnight. The air pressure rose 24 hours to 10 mm.

13.X.

As my condition improves and the weather had cleared, I left early to visit the previously unknown Kodjanos district (in jihan Numa real Gödjenes). The road in the valley to Bartin, which we initially followed a part at least in summer, be an important connection. Here I need to rectify the same that of Ovadjumasi down the river valleys there is only one road on the map. In reality, the riverbed itself serving as a way too often in Anatolia. We came very slowly to the smooth stream gravels along. Many sycamores are in a valley, which is uninhabited. Only to carriers at half height are occasional small settlements how Deli Fazlo-Koei. The plateaus are both sides of two – 400 m above the valley floor.

With a Han on the river, which lies in 210 meters to the southwest of the lie at the height Dayb-Koei, we leave, run by a young farmer, the valley to follow for the transition after Kodjanos. On a steep slope stream bed, we climb the left side of the valley up through sandstone. The forest is lush, consisting of oak, alder and sycamore trees and undergrowth of laurel, and has large ferns.

The almost invisible path was very difficult, the last ascent to the village Merkeb-Oren (= donkey ruins, 435 meters) pretty steep. From this village, we take in a gentle climbs the yoke of the watershed and pulled the hills up to the higher part to one of the sections of the village Ütsch-Basch (585 m), on the slope down Herkimen-su flowing brook, whose sole we arrive at 475 meters and the run we follow down.

Once the stream has resulted in a fort coming river water-rich from Isba Dagh above Akviran, we follow the course of west-north-west. The broad valley connected by wooded hills, one is partially cultivated and, as indicated by the most common place names in “viren”[1], ancient culture soil. The inhabitants are a curious, not unintelligent, reasonably small Turkish blow of something darker skin. In the valley is a desert mosque Eski Djami at 350 m above sea level. Of her turns from the direction of the valley and takes the direction to Bairakraular 250 in which we got stream beds downwards. At the mouth of a large river, which comes from the south, is located on the Ürkutlar below the annex village, our destination, the village Kumludja, only 190 m above the sea. In the house of Hadji Jordan, a Greek, we find a very friendly welcome and good accommodation.


[1] Viren, viran, ören, etc. in Turkish means ruin

Kodjanos and mountain pass to Zafaranboli

14. X

Kodjanos difficult transition and the horses had very tired and rain started I took the suggestion of Hadji Jordan likes to keep a day of rest in this place and from this interesting man could make inquiries about the country and people. Our host can only speak Turkish, as the entire older generation of Greeks. He comes from Zafaranboli where he lives during the winter. He has Kumludja bought 15 years ago and here built a water mill, then gradually by money lending to the villagers, although not officially recognized, yet actually created leadership position, so that the 170 villages or hamlets Kodjanos[§] former Nahie more or less dependent on him are. He is distinguished by intelligence and drive, is feared by the peasants, but knows that his sons, who do not have a healthy and confident way and his physical strength have the same degree, the property can not be hold.

Kodjanos is old cultural soil. Approximately 500 m northwest from Kumludja, slightly above the river valleys, is the extensive ruins of a stately place the Byzantine period. The local patriots of Zafaranboli have introduced instead, the name Larissa from their Greek studies. Even the brick tombs were used. The building material of the foundation walls, wide, flat tiles, which were connected by mortar, has now been re-coated to the walls. A Byzantine column capital came from visible church, even small icons and crosses were found there, but small inscriptions. A ring with blue stone, the wife of Hadji Jordan possessed and which was also found there bears, Kufic script. The coins discovered there are all Byzantine.

The necropolis located in the districts Kodjanos which Hadji Khalfa describes Djihan Numa had led me in part to this roundabout. Hadji Jordan knew the plant, which in Kyrek Dagh (ie broken Mountains) about 4 hours southwest of Kumludja should steeply above the Kyzylartschai, near the village Kyzylar. Since the road was found to be very difficult to represent, so I had to desist, because even large marches were imminent. The description of our host, I took the following:

The entrance is made rectangular, and with a frame, columns, does not exist. A staircase leads down to the chambers; most of which turned over, but 3 or 4 are still accessible. These are a lot of skeletons and as adjuncts bottles, belts and earrings with filigree work. The floor of this rock chambers is designed with wide, flat tiles.

After this fairly credible reports appears to be a rock necropolis, which will demonstrate how the wide brick, would be almost impossible to sit through the Hellenistic period onwards.

Hadji Jordan regretted that we had made the difficult transition from Ovadjumasi ago. From three sides Kodjanos is surrounded by high mountains, in the valley just north of Kodjanos-tschai a wheeled route in 8 hours leads to Bartin. Difficult is the transition from west to Tchai- Djumasi or Filias bazaar and to the south to Jenidje-divan at Ulu-tschai wherever one expects 6 hours.

15. X.

The rain, which lasted for almost 24 hours now heard on our fortunes against morning. Hadji Jordan had sent a messenger to Zafaranboli and let us log into acquaintance of his. He prepared us that the road is difficult.

In the valley of the left Creek, who was again full of plane trees, it was initially a weak slope upward over the little Mochee Hadji Djamili (280 m), then the right buckets of branched creek system over by oak shrubs on village Hadjä Sumular and steeper climbs on the height of valleys. By spruce forest of 920 m upstream pending, incase we, with the view over the valleys to the higher water cracks around and are now getting very steep, with the horses can hardly be pulled up by us, except for a southwestward steep ridge 1170 m height, then gradually on the back of rising up and down up to 1435 m. Finally, the level reached 1520 m and there is a steep decline into a deep dry, indented valley fills well in only a few light showers for a short time, Demiroluk (iron pipe), in which we draw down.

The whole system of Bach Kodjanos stood in the sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous, who joined in our climbs three times with lime, the lower limestone was bluish, the white upper. The highest peak is formed of coarse conglomerate, in which the sandstone passes. The whole complex sweeps SW-NE and falls steeply to the northwest. Upon further descents into Demiroluk to below the curve of the valley (850 m) is southeast of the first village beyond the yoke Susandyk, conglomerate the sterile soil. From here a small stream from the heights (1000 m) located Susandyk leads we forth out in a southerly direction from the Demiroluk-Dagh, the 4 – 5 km stops rather abruptly to the reduction of field Zafaranboli. At its margins lies the Eocene, mostly developed as nummulite, horizontally across the conglomerate respectively. Sandstone masses of the edge structure.

Upon entering the plane I tried to hold it in landscape photography, although the sun had already disappeared. But probably the most important features occur in the picture shows (Fig. 51). Finally there is the steep, 600 m to the superior level of the wall Güzjaka-Dagh, which towers above the deep trough invisible Aratsch-chai. In the valley of our left tributary on the left bank Zafaranboli, the Turks city, high on the right bank Kyran-Koei (border town), the Greek city. I march in the latter, quite in the dark, and going into the Greek house in which I am registered, received very respectfully, but must be all present to answer questions, and receive only after three hours a meager dinner.

Zafaranboli from north The canyon divides Turkish city on left and Greek city on right

Zafaranboli from north
The canyon divides Turkish city on left and Greek city on right

16. X.

Our lodging in Kyranköi, respectively. Zafaranboli was 390 m high. My hosts were very good, but quite unrealistic. For example, the question of an older man touched peculiar if there really were a country America. People here are quite cut off from all outside world, the Greeks understood only Turkish and Turks are half grown. Even the women are very shy and submissive. After, as almost always, public lever I received a visit from the police administrator and a Greek priest. Then I went over to the Turkish city, where it descends steeply to the river and almost as steep again went up, because the bulk of the Turkish city lies in a valley, the public buildings and the Citadel at the height of the left bank. The Kaimakam me very cool, he had not been notified of Kastamuni out from where I had been logged in Djidde. I wrote to Mr. Beichel Kastamuni, he would have the kindness to effect my application Vali in Boli. I gave the letter to the returning Aziz Tschausch.

It was perhaps been a mistake to stay at a Greek home, it diminishes the respect to the Turkish authorities. But here I was hoping to get at least the more active mentally Greeks some important evidence. The great assembly, the adjusting is interested in the afternoon, also for the ancient ruins and some of that could record what I turned out to be important later. The Christian quarter in which only Greeks living will, 500 houses have, the Turks city 2000, the latter figure might be too high[**].

Zafaranboli, perhaps the Byzantine Germia[††] is certainly since very ancient times a center. The already witness the three tumuli, which lie directly west of Kyran-Koei in the plane and excavation had been banned by the government. But the grave inscriptions G. Mendel found[‡‡] here confirm it as a branch before the Byzantine period.

The city of some trade for Bartin, who goes in the above riverbed of Ova-chai down and in winter when the water is high, stop. Whether the saffron still has a large share of the export, I can not say. His harvest takes place in September. Moreover, it is particularly cereals and fruit that grow well in the protected field reduction, the move to export.

As in other cities of Anatolia, the occupancy of Zafaranboli mainly live on the produce of their gardens. They are present in all directions of the plane. Tokat in the north, the west Bulak is particularly rich in country houses and makes the summer holiday. In other gardens that belong to Zafaranboli, I passed the next day. Nevertheless, one can get in such a little country town. At noon I had a delicacy small potatoes in the evening a little goat.

The industry, which may have been previously lively goes everywhere down due to cheap European imports.

The plateaus at Soghanly-su and the level of Viranschehr

17. X.

The Kaimakam had me put a zaptieh who should accompany me to Boli. I dare with my horses, since the Kodjanos were no longer fresh enough, not very difficult tours. There were also many archaeological interests, referring to rock monuments, which the French epigraphists had paid no attention. An intelligent Greek stonemason from Zafaranboli, Giannis, who knew the area, went with a guide. When we left the city, has been held in both parts of the market. South of the city, we went across the river and approached, pulling the pretty barren, formed by nummulite level to the southeast, gradually the deep cut Aratsch-su. Along the river course to spread the gardens of the residents of Zaferanboli, also in the valley of the Punarly-chai, which collects the waters from the northeast and therefore Eflani-su is called. On the left (east) bank of the Punarly-chai increases the plateau, is located on the Jürük-Koei, abruptly steep. Likewise, the steep rise in the south of Aratsch-su ago.

Above the mouth of the said creek in the Aratsch-su we camped for lunch at Sadiköi in only 230 m above sea level. Up the river has cut deep into the plateau. About 1 km above our break we walked by the river and began to increase from a depression of the southern ridge to the southeast. At Tchertschen-divan (525 m) over, reach steep climbs with the yoke height 855 m, which is dominated by the western elevation about 150 meters from the east at about 100 m. From the heights we look towards the south into the deeply cut, the Aratsch-su parallel valley of Soghanly-su (= onion water), the same that was in the upper course and on average than Ulutschai Aktschai course as we know.

Something deeper, more to the southeast, is our destination, the village Ilbaryt (765 m), consisting of 20 houses. It must be in imperial times here grow prosperity. Have prevailed, as numerous rock tombs[§§] are sometimes carved with Christian emblems. I will report about it in Chapter IX. The people of Ilbaryt were amazed they had never seen a man without a fez.

The upcoming, yellowish nummulite was here below on Punarlytschai disturbed, but not folded. The Oda of the place is at the same school, and just like the Djami well built. After Bojalü-bazar is expected of Ilbaryt 18 hour journey.

18. X.

At Karaschehr and Hadjilar-Obasi past we descended into the continuous below the latter place for Soghanly-su river lie within the canyon-like valley of deep caves in the limestone. Above the mouth, we reached the Soghany-su at 335 meters above sea level and had to cross into the narrow valley ten times the pretty raging river. In the valley is at Sandstone, where the steep wall of the left bank are nearing Karakojunlu grave chambers hewn in two floors quite raw, with 4 top 5 chambers which stone benches that contain dead stock should. The latter figure comes from the peasants of the village, which claimed to have scaled the wall.

Karakojunlu is inhabited by Circassians. It struck me that geese were kept, which can be seen nowhere else. Tscherkesch the market town Bojalü-bazar is one knew only by hearsay. The river upstream through Günei, the last known villages was three hours away on the right bank Kyran-Koei and on the left in the forest Satlar.

Then I was led to the described in detail in Chapter VI rock tomb. It is located approximately 400 m southeast of the village in a small valley, which contained an ancient settlement, as the pottery showed. The mukhtar of the village had accompanied me on this excursion.

On the river, near the foundations of old stone bridge, 350 meters above sea level I rested under the trees and then walked 100 meters above the wooden bridge located to visit the antiquities of the right bank. About this I report in Section V and VI. The ancient rocks were partly overgrown by dense bush (Fig. 52).

On the terrace of medium height and pulling towards the west, we again Hadjilar-Obasi (500 m), a handsome, counted 100 houses village, which is inhabited by Jürüken. The women hid themselves, even not called to prayer. The residents of Hadjilar-Obasi often go on some years after Konstantinople, the families who are among all related, have there, including a pie bakery where they detach, so it happened that I excellent in this world-remote mountain village by a sorbet was surprised.

My landlord had been working in the munitions factory in Yildis-kiosks, where he had worked Rifle runs. He had been suffering due to a break in the GermanHospital treated and had retained sympathy for Germany.

Primitive rock grave on the right bank of Soghanlysu

Primitive rock grave on the right bank of Soghanlysu

19. X.

Archaeological interests held me still in this interesting ridge. Tschavuschlar at (600 m) me an alleged lion was shown, it was the re-given in Plate XXIX relief. West of the village against Bürnük still many grave plants were visible from late-Hellenistic period. (See Chapter IX.)

In the so called Bürnük Minareh of two ancient staircase pieces were composed. From here we descend to the southwest quite steeply to Soghanly-su, a piece move far down the river and through fords him in 320 meters above sea level. Two dealers I met, I learned that the way to Kuleli was very difficult; Bojalü to ride for 12 hours across the plateau, in the river valleys longer.

From the river we climbed straight up, the slope is divided into several terraces. At the third level at 530 meters I see in a cliff about 80 feet higher still, a necropolis of climbing which I had to leave for lack of time. According to the description that was made to me, the access from the east is enabling by a staircase of 50 steps supposedly. A walk on the outside into the individual rock chambers that seem to contain arcosolia. The retaining wall that I could see from afar, was built of bricks and the bad side of the outer chambers was completely artless.

The descent to the west was as arduous as the rise, especially since the whole back was covered with dense bushes. The worst of the Soghanly-su, were invested in the rice fields, just before we reached the mouth of the coming of the South Viranschehr-su, pull down on the big river, and then across the conglomerate hills up to Sobran (600 m).

This high-altitude city is the seat of the Mudir Nahie Kizilbel in whose house we were quartered, although the Mudir was absent them. From this home was Kyranköi, the Christians of Zafranboli city, in the direction of N. 20 against O. visible. It is expected there 3 hours.

20. X.

In Sobran I saw several of the listed pieces by French archaeologists, the first statue of a seated headless virtogatus. The farmers were not able to recognize a human form. I also saw on the south of the town situated Mezar pillar pieces, part of a sarcophagus with Medusa head and garlands, finally, re-erected as grave, the grave stone sculpture, which I reproduce in my humble drawings in Chapter IX. This same Doublet[***] describes as “a stele with a rider and a tree around which a snake curls”. Quite correctly the same piece of G. Mendel[†††] describes as Sobran.

Doublet had heard the names of places vaguely written and Zorah, then closed out the name similarity to Sora. Should we mentioned in Hierocles Episcopal city Sora ever looking in this area, it should be recognized Sobran. The discovery of the ancient point of Sobran is just southeast of places now at a wooded site.

The descent took place after Viranschehr-su on the slopes of the hills, which consist of marl, which changes with the nummular lime, go to a small valley along its western side of the valley is situated high above the Burunsuz. We reached the valley floor at 380 m above sea level and then rode the short but interesting gorge in the Viranschehr-su breaks above the confluence of the east half of the stream coming Ütschbasch leading by bright lime nummular, the Kilisse-Boghaz. On a bridge going over the road on the right bank. Near the south end of the canyon on the right side of the valley is becoming more a guard house, (Bek), in which an old zaptieh is posted. This leads me to the old tombs, which are next at a water mill (Deirmen). It follows the road for quite a number of graves, some with inscriptions, which were all copied from French epigraphers already. About the Empire no exits. I have seen brick pieces that can wear in the vicinity of a former village. Doublet and Mendel had apparently kept Sobran for the place at which the graves belong[‡‡‡]. R. Kiepert was the ancient city on the basis of the statement by Anton on the same bank suggested above halfway[§§§]. Today, everything is there, heavily forested. The river, the sea level was 460 m. pending in the valley is only sandstone and conglomerate old, also marl. This may deposit older than Eocene lime, since they are more distorted than the almost always horizontal lime. Tschihatscheff was observed even by Kilisse-Boghaz south superimposing the marl by nummulite have (Geology II, p. 257) the valley itself is partially grown, while the wide plains are thickly forested with both silk. To the left of the river Nahie Kodjuvas lies with 25 villages in the right Nahie Aktash.

In the valley upwards, we pass several solitary Han’s, pass the stream that comes from Dereköi then Hanköi that of an ancient ruin has the name and turn into the valley of a tributary, flows into the valley in which the city Sama scattered in 4 Mahalle’s located (across the 54 houses).

Hidden in a side is the eastern Mahalle in which we can find accommodation (705 m). Residents push tobacco cultivation and are relatively wealthy. Samail belongs directly to Tscherkesch where the inhabitants eight hours for each well must pass (jol-Teskere) or other credentials go. Bayndyr and Hahamlü away 5 hours each.

21. X.

Kale at Samail, the Lord had me in Bastelica sealed angry first attention was some fellow countrymen known. It is up to a half hour from the specified locations, as it seemed, in a southwesterly direction, but is very difficult, allegedly over a narrow ledge “only with bare feet.” To achieve. From foundations to be visible only slightly. The width of the rock tunnels seems to be about 5 m, and about 10 levels of the same width can still go down, then the stages are narrower and below will all be filled with stones.

The report agreed completely with the previously known rock tunnel.

We had to go after Viranschehr, go the valley back down, then moved in the valley of a right tributary of the Viranschehr-su about a mile further up, climbed out of a small left tributary from the hills of this page, which folded out more shale and partially crystal lime exist, and then climbed into the broad central valley of Viranschehr-su, lie at the western slope at altitude Kyranköi. Could the names of the villages in the valley, I can not determine. About Viranschehr-bazar (725 m), located approximately 400 m east of the river away, I moved up here in the strong widening valley.

The valley walls resign and are strongly resolved through the tributaries, two of which come from the left side. We moved to the northern along and came out of a farmer. Side of the stream to the first tombs belonging to the old city, which is called general Eski Viranschehr, Further west, between the two parallel streams, stands opposite the village Tshairly, nearly one kilometer north-west of this, a hill, consisting of lime and everywhere shows traces of rock work. On three sides of the mountain falls off with strong slope to the west it goes to plateau.

While under the river numerous grave pillars stand[****], in the lower part of the rock grave chambers are carved with arcosolia. Steps and stairs, which are carved into the rock, connect the lower to the upper terrace. Everywhere is the rock processed and narrow roads are created, retaining walls built on the terraces-waste and foundations of buildings visible. An inscription showed that Hadrianopolis Bithynia that Heinrich Kiepert had suspected was here long before me. As I learned later, G. Mendel had found not long before the place, but I can not agree with his description entirely, particularly his statement that every trace of buildings lacking. Hadrianopolis merited an investigation. It need not only be dug up, everything is open and is being exploited for a long time by the dwellers. I only saw a worthless glass bottles and pottery shards. But it should have been much sold from here to Constantinople. I had the impression that the city has been abandoned abruptly, perhaps as a result of the earthquake, in which the 4 and 5th century was so rich. By rain forced I return to Viranschehr-bazaar, where I put in the Han. Except this still constitute a Djami various stalls and the market town. (725 m)


[*] koi: village

[†] Taschapar: The couriers were called, so that means “postman”

[‡] Para: Ottoman monetary unit

[§] now it is combined with the Kaza Bartin

[**] Cuinet IV, 474 2795 Orthodox Christian and 4705 Moslems

[††] W. Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia Minor, s. 322.

[‡‡] Bull. Correspondance Hellenique 1901. Nr. 173, 174 and Legrand a. A. O. 1897, s. 92.

[§§] These are the “wait” in the travel reports of Anton.

[***] Inscriptions de Bithynie, Bullet. Corr. Hell. 1889 p. 310

[†††] Bulletin Corr. Hell. 1901. Nr. 172 from Sobran.

[‡‡‡] on the left bank of the Viranscher-su about an hour from the river! Bull Corr. Hell. 1901, p. 28th

[§§§] Kale, which Anton has drawn on the basis of inquiries, should have been mentioned by A. D. Mordman former seat of a Derebey. Anton’s on the map to travel the distance is twice repeatedly. Also the height provisions of roundtrip agree not to each other.

[****] A portion of which is situated on the Turkish cemetery again