Osmanlı Evi

 

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AHŞAP YAPILARDA KORUMA VE ONARIM SEMPOZYUMU 4, 26-27 NİSAN 2016, İSTANBUL’da ikinci gün sunacağım “Osmanlı Evi’nin Evrimi / Anadolu – Osmanlı Sentezinde Strüktür ve Form” başlıklı bildirimde yer alan savlarımı kanıtlamak için çeşitli kaynaklardan yüzün üzerinde Osmanlı Evi’nin boyutlarını derledim ve bunların istatistiki analizlerini yaptım. Benzer araştırmalara da yararlı olabileceğini düşünerek ilişikte sunuyorum:

Evler

Osmanlı Baş Odası

DK WoodenPlaces 26.jpg

AHŞAP YAPILARDA KORUMA VE ONARIM SEMPOZYUMU 4, 26-27 NİSAN 2016, İSTANBUL’da ikinci gün sunacağım “Osmanlı Evi’nin Evrimi / Anadolu – Osmanlı Sentezinde Strüktür ve Form” başlıklı bildirimde yer alan savlarımı kanıtlamak için çeşitli kaynaklardan yüzün üzerinde Osmanlı Başodası’nın boyutlarını derledim  ve bunların istatistiki analizlerini yaptım. Benzer araştırmalara da yararlı olabileceğini düşünerek ilişikte sunuyorum:

Başoda

İstanbul’da Kullanılacak Kerestelerin Enva’ına Dair

Ahmet Refik Altınay’ın Onuncu Asr-ı Hicride İstanbul Hayatı (T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı, Kültür Eserleri, Ankara, 2000) isimli kitabında Bab-ı Hümayun’un karar ve Mimar Başı’na gözetimi için tebliğ ettiği 2 adet liste bulunmaktadır. Kolayca anlaşılır bir şekilde derlediğim bu listeleri ilişikte bulacaksınız.

İstanbul’da Kullanılacak Kerestelerin Enva’ına Dair

Karar şöyle bitiyor:

“…emir idüb buyurdum ki vardukda bu hususda kemali ikdam ve ihtimam ile mukayyed olub ve andan kesüb getüren kimesnelere gereği gibi tenbih ve te’kid eyliyesin ki minbaad getürdük­leri kerestei vechi meşruh üzre tayin olunan zirâdan eksük kesmiyüb ve kerestenin dahi âlâsın kesüb getüreler Şöyleki emir olunandan eksük kesüb ve âlâsın getûrmiyeler gereği gibi haklarından gelinüb hakaret olunmak mukarrerdir Ana göre mukayyed olub emrim üzre zikrolunan kerestei tayin olunan zirâdan eksük getürtmiyeler Ve Bu emri şerifimi sicilli mahfuza kayıd eyliyesin ki minbaad dahi mazmunu hümayunile amel olunub ana muhalif iş eylemiyeler (Mimar başına verildi)* Fi 22 Zilkade 975 (1567)

*Mimar Sinan

 

Osmanlı Evi’nin Evrimi / Anadolu – Osmanlı Sentezinde Strüktür ve Form

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AHŞAP YAPILARDA KORUMA VE ONARIM SEMPOZYUMU 4, 26-27 NİSAN 2016, İSTANBUL’da İkinci gün sunacağım bildiri için seçme kaynakça:

 

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Travels and Surveys in the Northern Asia-Minor* by Richard Leonhard

* Translated by İbrahim Canbulat from Leonhard, R. Papahlagonia / Reisen und Forschungen im Nördlichen Kleinasien, Dieter Reimer, Berlin, 1915, pages 137-147. Place names are left as in German transliterations. This text is still under editing.

About Ovadjumasi after Kodjanos

11.X.

Many farmers from the area of ​​Zafranboli come already for tomorrow’s market. For the first time again I see four-wheeled car, and also to the axis not the full wooden discs, but wheels with rims and spokes of wood.

Cheleby-koi[*] is located 1 1/2 km from the bazaar. We march thru the southwest valley out of Kuru getschid (dry = ford) a yoke which leads to southward. We adhere to the hills to the west which stretches north with a densely populated plane, to the south the land falls to the basin of Zafranboli. The path there leads and turns off over the nearby village Ovatschi which is uninhabited and desolate. In Chodjadjyk we are still in 835 m height. From here the terrain falls gradually towards the basin of Zafranboli, which is about 450 m deep. Ahead towards the northwest, the terrain rises gently to Olos Dagh, while in the West at least 500 meters higher, rising abruptly Isbadagh closes the horizon.

The road turns unceasingly along the sling of Olos-Dagh, which is heavily wooded and ride beginning approximately at the same height, valley walls high above a river, which is at Tschapar-özü (probably the Sapandjiler Tschihatcheffs) valley with a coming from the south depth[†]. Then the trail descends and ascends finally into steep curves for Ova-chai, to the south of the suspension lowers the path of Zafranboli itself. Olos-chai meets with the road at the left bank leaving convenient land for Ova Djumasi (315 m), which covers a Djami and Han. A bit further down leads on the right side Olos-chai, winding through a deep valley. As the horses are very tired of the descents, so we stay in the Han of Ova-djumasi, passed by the many farmers to the market after Eflani-bazar. At night noon raises a heavy rain and storm, which also continues for the night.

12.X.

Ovadjumasi must provide in good weathers an incomparable view, but unfortunately the rain did not stop. Since Eflanibazar, I could not have fresh bread, barely pulled out of the oven half-baked dough was uncomfortable, so I used the day to starvation, and succeeded better than the host of the Han could offer nothing but tomatoes. With which how Handji can live is not clear to me. The farmers buy a cup of coffee 5 para[‡] and are saved outside they crept into their carts, despite the pouring rain. Their horses were also outside overnight. It rained all day through until midnight. The air pressure rose 24 hours to 10 mm.

13.X.

As my condition improves and the weather had cleared, I left early to visit the previously unknown Kodjanos district (in jihan Numa real Gödjenes). The road in the valley to Bartin, which we initially followed a part at least in summer, be an important connection. Here I need to rectify the same that of Ovadjumasi down the river valleys there is only one road on the map. In reality, the riverbed itself serving as a way too often in Anatolia. We came very slowly to the smooth stream gravels along. Many sycamores are in a valley, which is uninhabited. Only to carriers at half height are occasional small settlements how Deli Fazlo-Koei. The plateaus are both sides of two – 400 m above the valley floor.

With a Han on the river, which lies in 210 meters to the southwest of the lie at the height Dayb-Koei, we leave, run by a young farmer, the valley to follow for the transition after Kodjanos. On a steep slope stream bed, we climb the left side of the valley up through sandstone. The forest is lush, consisting of oak, alder and sycamore trees and undergrowth of laurel, and has large ferns.

The almost invisible path was very difficult, the last ascent to the village Merkeb-Oren (= donkey ruins, 435 meters) pretty steep. From this village, we take in a gentle climbs the yoke of the watershed and pulled the hills up to the higher part to one of the sections of the village Ütsch-Basch (585 m), on the slope down Herkimen-su flowing brook, whose sole we arrive at 475 meters and the run we follow down.

Once the stream has resulted in a fort coming river water-rich from Isba Dagh above Akviran, we follow the course of west-north-west. The broad valley connected by wooded hills, one is partially cultivated and, as indicated by the most common place names in “viren”[1], ancient culture soil. The inhabitants are a curious, not unintelligent, reasonably small Turkish blow of something darker skin. In the valley is a desert mosque Eski Djami at 350 m above sea level. Of her turns from the direction of the valley and takes the direction to Bairakraular 250 in which we got stream beds downwards. At the mouth of a large river, which comes from the south, is located on the Ürkutlar below the annex village, our destination, the village Kumludja, only 190 m above the sea. In the house of Hadji Jordan, a Greek, we find a very friendly welcome and good accommodation.


[1] Viren, viran, ören, etc. in Turkish means ruin

Kodjanos and mountain pass to Zafaranboli

14. X

Kodjanos difficult transition and the horses had very tired and rain started I took the suggestion of Hadji Jordan likes to keep a day of rest in this place and from this interesting man could make inquiries about the country and people. Our host can only speak Turkish, as the entire older generation of Greeks. He comes from Zafaranboli where he lives during the winter. He has Kumludja bought 15 years ago and here built a water mill, then gradually by money lending to the villagers, although not officially recognized, yet actually created leadership position, so that the 170 villages or hamlets Kodjanos[§] former Nahie more or less dependent on him are. He is distinguished by intelligence and drive, is feared by the peasants, but knows that his sons, who do not have a healthy and confident way and his physical strength have the same degree, the property can not be hold.

Kodjanos is old cultural soil. Approximately 500 m northwest from Kumludja, slightly above the river valleys, is the extensive ruins of a stately place the Byzantine period. The local patriots of Zafaranboli have introduced instead, the name Larissa from their Greek studies. Even the brick tombs were used. The building material of the foundation walls, wide, flat tiles, which were connected by mortar, has now been re-coated to the walls. A Byzantine column capital came from visible church, even small icons and crosses were found there, but small inscriptions. A ring with blue stone, the wife of Hadji Jordan possessed and which was also found there bears, Kufic script. The coins discovered there are all Byzantine.

The necropolis located in the districts Kodjanos which Hadji Khalfa describes Djihan Numa had led me in part to this roundabout. Hadji Jordan knew the plant, which in Kyrek Dagh (ie broken Mountains) about 4 hours southwest of Kumludja should steeply above the Kyzylartschai, near the village Kyzylar. Since the road was found to be very difficult to represent, so I had to desist, because even large marches were imminent. The description of our host, I took the following:

The entrance is made rectangular, and with a frame, columns, does not exist. A staircase leads down to the chambers; most of which turned over, but 3 or 4 are still accessible. These are a lot of skeletons and as adjuncts bottles, belts and earrings with filigree work. The floor of this rock chambers is designed with wide, flat tiles.

After this fairly credible reports appears to be a rock necropolis, which will demonstrate how the wide brick, would be almost impossible to sit through the Hellenistic period onwards.

Hadji Jordan regretted that we had made the difficult transition from Ovadjumasi ago. From three sides Kodjanos is surrounded by high mountains, in the valley just north of Kodjanos-tschai a wheeled route in 8 hours leads to Bartin. Difficult is the transition from west to Tchai- Djumasi or Filias bazaar and to the south to Jenidje-divan at Ulu-tschai wherever one expects 6 hours.

15. X.

The rain, which lasted for almost 24 hours now heard on our fortunes against morning. Hadji Jordan had sent a messenger to Zafaranboli and let us log into acquaintance of his. He prepared us that the road is difficult.

In the valley of the left Creek, who was again full of plane trees, it was initially a weak slope upward over the little Mochee Hadji Djamili (280 m), then the right buckets of branched creek system over by oak shrubs on village Hadjä Sumular and steeper climbs on the height of valleys. By spruce forest of 920 m upstream pending, incase we, with the view over the valleys to the higher water cracks around and are now getting very steep, with the horses can hardly be pulled up by us, except for a southwestward steep ridge 1170 m height, then gradually on the back of rising up and down up to 1435 m. Finally, the level reached 1520 m and there is a steep decline into a deep dry, indented valley fills well in only a few light showers for a short time, Demiroluk (iron pipe), in which we draw down.

The whole system of Bach Kodjanos stood in the sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous, who joined in our climbs three times with lime, the lower limestone was bluish, the white upper. The highest peak is formed of coarse conglomerate, in which the sandstone passes. The whole complex sweeps SW-NE and falls steeply to the northwest. Upon further descents into Demiroluk to below the curve of the valley (850 m) is southeast of the first village beyond the yoke Susandyk, conglomerate the sterile soil. From here a small stream from the heights (1000 m) located Susandyk leads we forth out in a southerly direction from the Demiroluk-Dagh, the 4 – 5 km stops rather abruptly to the reduction of field Zafaranboli. At its margins lies the Eocene, mostly developed as nummulite, horizontally across the conglomerate respectively. Sandstone masses of the edge structure.

Upon entering the plane I tried to hold it in landscape photography, although the sun had already disappeared. But probably the most important features occur in the picture shows (Fig. 51). Finally there is the steep, 600 m to the superior level of the wall Güzjaka-Dagh, which towers above the deep trough invisible Aratsch-chai. In the valley of our left tributary on the left bank Zafaranboli, the Turks city, high on the right bank Kyran-Koei (border town), the Greek city. I march in the latter, quite in the dark, and going into the Greek house in which I am registered, received very respectfully, but must be all present to answer questions, and receive only after three hours a meager dinner.

Zafaranboli from north The canyon divides Turkish city on left and Greek city on right

Zafaranboli from north
The canyon divides Turkish city on left and Greek city on right

16. X.

Our lodging in Kyranköi, respectively. Zafaranboli was 390 m high. My hosts were very good, but quite unrealistic. For example, the question of an older man touched peculiar if there really were a country America. People here are quite cut off from all outside world, the Greeks understood only Turkish and Turks are half grown. Even the women are very shy and submissive. After, as almost always, public lever I received a visit from the police administrator and a Greek priest. Then I went over to the Turkish city, where it descends steeply to the river and almost as steep again went up, because the bulk of the Turkish city lies in a valley, the public buildings and the Citadel at the height of the left bank. The Kaimakam me very cool, he had not been notified of Kastamuni out from where I had been logged in Djidde. I wrote to Mr. Beichel Kastamuni, he would have the kindness to effect my application Vali in Boli. I gave the letter to the returning Aziz Tschausch.

It was perhaps been a mistake to stay at a Greek home, it diminishes the respect to the Turkish authorities. But here I was hoping to get at least the more active mentally Greeks some important evidence. The great assembly, the adjusting is interested in the afternoon, also for the ancient ruins and some of that could record what I turned out to be important later. The Christian quarter in which only Greeks living will, 500 houses have, the Turks city 2000, the latter figure might be too high[**].

Zafaranboli, perhaps the Byzantine Germia[††] is certainly since very ancient times a center. The already witness the three tumuli, which lie directly west of Kyran-Koei in the plane and excavation had been banned by the government. But the grave inscriptions G. Mendel found[‡‡] here confirm it as a branch before the Byzantine period.

The city of some trade for Bartin, who goes in the above riverbed of Ova-chai down and in winter when the water is high, stop. Whether the saffron still has a large share of the export, I can not say. His harvest takes place in September. Moreover, it is particularly cereals and fruit that grow well in the protected field reduction, the move to export.

As in other cities of Anatolia, the occupancy of Zafaranboli mainly live on the produce of their gardens. They are present in all directions of the plane. Tokat in the north, the west Bulak is particularly rich in country houses and makes the summer holiday. In other gardens that belong to Zafaranboli, I passed the next day. Nevertheless, one can get in such a little country town. At noon I had a delicacy small potatoes in the evening a little goat.

The industry, which may have been previously lively goes everywhere down due to cheap European imports.

The plateaus at Soghanly-su and the level of Viranschehr

17. X.

The Kaimakam had me put a zaptieh who should accompany me to Boli. I dare with my horses, since the Kodjanos were no longer fresh enough, not very difficult tours. There were also many archaeological interests, referring to rock monuments, which the French epigraphists had paid no attention. An intelligent Greek stonemason from Zafaranboli, Giannis, who knew the area, went with a guide. When we left the city, has been held in both parts of the market. South of the city, we went across the river and approached, pulling the pretty barren, formed by nummulite level to the southeast, gradually the deep cut Aratsch-su. Along the river course to spread the gardens of the residents of Zaferanboli, also in the valley of the Punarly-chai, which collects the waters from the northeast and therefore Eflani-su is called. On the left (east) bank of the Punarly-chai increases the plateau, is located on the Jürük-Koei, abruptly steep. Likewise, the steep rise in the south of Aratsch-su ago.

Above the mouth of the said creek in the Aratsch-su we camped for lunch at Sadiköi in only 230 m above sea level. Up the river has cut deep into the plateau. About 1 km above our break we walked by the river and began to increase from a depression of the southern ridge to the southeast. At Tchertschen-divan (525 m) over, reach steep climbs with the yoke height 855 m, which is dominated by the western elevation about 150 meters from the east at about 100 m. From the heights we look towards the south into the deeply cut, the Aratsch-su parallel valley of Soghanly-su (= onion water), the same that was in the upper course and on average than Ulutschai Aktschai course as we know.

Something deeper, more to the southeast, is our destination, the village Ilbaryt (765 m), consisting of 20 houses. It must be in imperial times here grow prosperity. Have prevailed, as numerous rock tombs[§§] are sometimes carved with Christian emblems. I will report about it in Chapter IX. The people of Ilbaryt were amazed they had never seen a man without a fez.

The upcoming, yellowish nummulite was here below on Punarlytschai disturbed, but not folded. The Oda of the place is at the same school, and just like the Djami well built. After Bojalü-bazar is expected of Ilbaryt 18 hour journey.

18. X.

At Karaschehr and Hadjilar-Obasi past we descended into the continuous below the latter place for Soghanly-su river lie within the canyon-like valley of deep caves in the limestone. Above the mouth, we reached the Soghany-su at 335 meters above sea level and had to cross into the narrow valley ten times the pretty raging river. In the valley is at Sandstone, where the steep wall of the left bank are nearing Karakojunlu grave chambers hewn in two floors quite raw, with 4 top 5 chambers which stone benches that contain dead stock should. The latter figure comes from the peasants of the village, which claimed to have scaled the wall.

Karakojunlu is inhabited by Circassians. It struck me that geese were kept, which can be seen nowhere else. Tscherkesch the market town Bojalü-bazar is one knew only by hearsay. The river upstream through Günei, the last known villages was three hours away on the right bank Kyran-Koei and on the left in the forest Satlar.

Then I was led to the described in detail in Chapter VI rock tomb. It is located approximately 400 m southeast of the village in a small valley, which contained an ancient settlement, as the pottery showed. The mukhtar of the village had accompanied me on this excursion.

On the river, near the foundations of old stone bridge, 350 meters above sea level I rested under the trees and then walked 100 meters above the wooden bridge located to visit the antiquities of the right bank. About this I report in Section V and VI. The ancient rocks were partly overgrown by dense bush (Fig. 52).

On the terrace of medium height and pulling towards the west, we again Hadjilar-Obasi (500 m), a handsome, counted 100 houses village, which is inhabited by Jürüken. The women hid themselves, even not called to prayer. The residents of Hadjilar-Obasi often go on some years after Konstantinople, the families who are among all related, have there, including a pie bakery where they detach, so it happened that I excellent in this world-remote mountain village by a sorbet was surprised.

My landlord had been working in the munitions factory in Yildis-kiosks, where he had worked Rifle runs. He had been suffering due to a break in the GermanHospital treated and had retained sympathy for Germany.

Primitive rock grave on the right bank of Soghanlysu

Primitive rock grave on the right bank of Soghanlysu

19. X.

Archaeological interests held me still in this interesting ridge. Tschavuschlar at (600 m) me an alleged lion was shown, it was the re-given in Plate XXIX relief. West of the village against Bürnük still many grave plants were visible from late-Hellenistic period. (See Chapter IX.)

In the so called Bürnük Minareh of two ancient staircase pieces were composed. From here we descend to the southwest quite steeply to Soghanly-su, a piece move far down the river and through fords him in 320 meters above sea level. Two dealers I met, I learned that the way to Kuleli was very difficult; Bojalü to ride for 12 hours across the plateau, in the river valleys longer.

From the river we climbed straight up, the slope is divided into several terraces. At the third level at 530 meters I see in a cliff about 80 feet higher still, a necropolis of climbing which I had to leave for lack of time. According to the description that was made to me, the access from the east is enabling by a staircase of 50 steps supposedly. A walk on the outside into the individual rock chambers that seem to contain arcosolia. The retaining wall that I could see from afar, was built of bricks and the bad side of the outer chambers was completely artless.

The descent to the west was as arduous as the rise, especially since the whole back was covered with dense bushes. The worst of the Soghanly-su, were invested in the rice fields, just before we reached the mouth of the coming of the South Viranschehr-su, pull down on the big river, and then across the conglomerate hills up to Sobran (600 m).

This high-altitude city is the seat of the Mudir Nahie Kizilbel in whose house we were quartered, although the Mudir was absent them. From this home was Kyranköi, the Christians of Zafranboli city, in the direction of N. 20 against O. visible. It is expected there 3 hours.

20. X.

In Sobran I saw several of the listed pieces by French archaeologists, the first statue of a seated headless virtogatus. The farmers were not able to recognize a human form. I also saw on the south of the town situated Mezar pillar pieces, part of a sarcophagus with Medusa head and garlands, finally, re-erected as grave, the grave stone sculpture, which I reproduce in my humble drawings in Chapter IX. This same Doublet[***] describes as “a stele with a rider and a tree around which a snake curls”. Quite correctly the same piece of G. Mendel[†††] describes as Sobran.

Doublet had heard the names of places vaguely written and Zorah, then closed out the name similarity to Sora. Should we mentioned in Hierocles Episcopal city Sora ever looking in this area, it should be recognized Sobran. The discovery of the ancient point of Sobran is just southeast of places now at a wooded site.

The descent took place after Viranschehr-su on the slopes of the hills, which consist of marl, which changes with the nummular lime, go to a small valley along its western side of the valley is situated high above the Burunsuz. We reached the valley floor at 380 m above sea level and then rode the short but interesting gorge in the Viranschehr-su breaks above the confluence of the east half of the stream coming Ütschbasch leading by bright lime nummular, the Kilisse-Boghaz. On a bridge going over the road on the right bank. Near the south end of the canyon on the right side of the valley is becoming more a guard house, (Bek), in which an old zaptieh is posted. This leads me to the old tombs, which are next at a water mill (Deirmen). It follows the road for quite a number of graves, some with inscriptions, which were all copied from French epigraphers already. About the Empire no exits. I have seen brick pieces that can wear in the vicinity of a former village. Doublet and Mendel had apparently kept Sobran for the place at which the graves belong[‡‡‡]. R. Kiepert was the ancient city on the basis of the statement by Anton on the same bank suggested above halfway[§§§]. Today, everything is there, heavily forested. The river, the sea level was 460 m. pending in the valley is only sandstone and conglomerate old, also marl. This may deposit older than Eocene lime, since they are more distorted than the almost always horizontal lime. Tschihatscheff was observed even by Kilisse-Boghaz south superimposing the marl by nummulite have (Geology II, p. 257) the valley itself is partially grown, while the wide plains are thickly forested with both silk. To the left of the river Nahie Kodjuvas lies with 25 villages in the right Nahie Aktash.

In the valley upwards, we pass several solitary Han’s, pass the stream that comes from Dereköi then Hanköi that of an ancient ruin has the name and turn into the valley of a tributary, flows into the valley in which the city Sama scattered in 4 Mahalle’s located (across the 54 houses).

Hidden in a side is the eastern Mahalle in which we can find accommodation (705 m). Residents push tobacco cultivation and are relatively wealthy. Samail belongs directly to Tscherkesch where the inhabitants eight hours for each well must pass (jol-Teskere) or other credentials go. Bayndyr and Hahamlü away 5 hours each.

21. X.

Kale at Samail, the Lord had me in Bastelica sealed angry first attention was some fellow countrymen known. It is up to a half hour from the specified locations, as it seemed, in a southwesterly direction, but is very difficult, allegedly over a narrow ledge “only with bare feet.” To achieve. From foundations to be visible only slightly. The width of the rock tunnels seems to be about 5 m, and about 10 levels of the same width can still go down, then the stages are narrower and below will all be filled with stones.

The report agreed completely with the previously known rock tunnel.

We had to go after Viranschehr, go the valley back down, then moved in the valley of a right tributary of the Viranschehr-su about a mile further up, climbed out of a small left tributary from the hills of this page, which folded out more shale and partially crystal lime exist, and then climbed into the broad central valley of Viranschehr-su, lie at the western slope at altitude Kyranköi. Could the names of the villages in the valley, I can not determine. About Viranschehr-bazar (725 m), located approximately 400 m east of the river away, I moved up here in the strong widening valley.

The valley walls resign and are strongly resolved through the tributaries, two of which come from the left side. We moved to the northern along and came out of a farmer. Side of the stream to the first tombs belonging to the old city, which is called general Eski Viranschehr, Further west, between the two parallel streams, stands opposite the village Tshairly, nearly one kilometer north-west of this, a hill, consisting of lime and everywhere shows traces of rock work. On three sides of the mountain falls off with strong slope to the west it goes to plateau.

While under the river numerous grave pillars stand[****], in the lower part of the rock grave chambers are carved with arcosolia. Steps and stairs, which are carved into the rock, connect the lower to the upper terrace. Everywhere is the rock processed and narrow roads are created, retaining walls built on the terraces-waste and foundations of buildings visible. An inscription showed that Hadrianopolis Bithynia that Heinrich Kiepert had suspected was here long before me. As I learned later, G. Mendel had found not long before the place, but I can not agree with his description entirely, particularly his statement that every trace of buildings lacking. Hadrianopolis merited an investigation. It need not only be dug up, everything is open and is being exploited for a long time by the dwellers. I only saw a worthless glass bottles and pottery shards. But it should have been much sold from here to Constantinople. I had the impression that the city has been abandoned abruptly, perhaps as a result of the earthquake, in which the 4 and 5th century was so rich. By rain forced I return to Viranschehr-bazaar, where I put in the Han. Except this still constitute a Djami various stalls and the market town. (725 m)


[*] koi: village

[†] Taschapar: The couriers were called, so that means “postman”

[‡] Para: Ottoman monetary unit

[§] now it is combined with the Kaza Bartin

[**] Cuinet IV, 474 2795 Orthodox Christian and 4705 Moslems

[††] W. Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia Minor, s. 322.

[‡‡] Bull. Correspondance Hellenique 1901. Nr. 173, 174 and Legrand a. A. O. 1897, s. 92.

[§§] These are the “wait” in the travel reports of Anton.

[***] Inscriptions de Bithynie, Bullet. Corr. Hell. 1889 p. 310

[†††] Bulletin Corr. Hell. 1901. Nr. 172 from Sobran.

[‡‡‡] on the left bank of the Viranscher-su about an hour from the river! Bull Corr. Hell. 1901, p. 28th

[§§§] Kale, which Anton has drawn on the basis of inquiries, should have been mentioned by A. D. Mordman former seat of a Derebey. Anton’s on the map to travel the distance is twice repeatedly. Also the height provisions of roundtrip agree not to each other.

[****] A portion of which is situated on the Turkish cemetery again

Safranbolu – Tourism versus Conservation*

Dr.Nuray TÜRKER, Tourism Manager & İbrahim Canbulat, Architect ABSTRACT Safranbolu can be described as a GemCity, which developed her crystallized beauty in long lasted negligence. With her more than 1200 registered historic monuments, she ranks in third position afterIstanbulandBursa. Starting with the extensive academic surveys and researches in 60s as well as early 70s, Safranbolu became a model for historic city conservation inTurkey. Having been in cluded in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage, in 1995 highlighted its name in intellectual spheres. Being acquainted with tourism started in 90s by the initiations of TTOK and opening of very first touristic hotel after the restoration of one of the largest mansions in Safranbolu. Although towns like Beypazarı, Mudurnu, Taraklı, etc. this time. In this paper, we will discuss the passed 15 years of Safranbolu in cultural tourism parallel to the developments of conservation practice. There are about 40 historic mansions which were restored as hotels, almost all historic market turned to souvenir shop$. in addition, cityscape has been face lifted to satisfy the expectations of tourists. The de­velopment of cultural tourism and interaction with conservation will be discussed within the frame work of ICOMOS – International Cultural Tourism Charter. Key words: Cultural tourism, historic city, conservation. INTRODUCTION Due to the positive economic impart on economies, the movements have sup­ported tourism that has created a boom in the sector especially after the Second World War, and eventually affected all social, natural, cultural and physical systems, negatively and positively in all extends. In short, while tourism affects economies of a region positively, affects all other systems negatively or posi tively and time to time on both opposite directions. Of course, tourism increases the income of the population in region, creates a good atmosphere for social and cultural interaction of the different societies and all these create bet ter understanding in different nations and support friendship and peace. Whereby, all these affect historical, natural and cultural values as well as tradi tions and beliefs of the society, negatively according to some actors. This mul tidirectional effect of tourism on human and natural values attracts the interest of multidisciplinary researchers as well as politicians and executives. For ex ample, local executives are interested in criminal site of the interaction of locals and guests; politicians are interested in cost and benefit of tourism and finally, academic corps surveys the behavior of locals by placing those relations into interdisciplinary canvas. (Hernandez et al. 1996:755) CULTURAL TOURISM Development of cultural tourism is the fastest of alL. it is stated that has been grooving in number by as much as 15% per annum in the last decade and very likely that will keep the same pace. European Commission discovered that 20% of tourists visitsEuropewere made for cultural purposes. Furthermore, culture was a main component of travel for 60% of the visitors. (WTO 2001: 4-5) Cul tural tourism and heritage are closely interdependent. While speaking about the tourism versus values of the host community, we should underline the similarity between cultural tourism versus heritage sites and monuments. In this paper, we will discuss the effects of cultural tourism-on Safranbolu, which is World Cultural heritage mainly on tangible values but we should show it affected intangible values, as well, knowing that getting in touch with the host community is an integral part of cultural tourism. Whereby, we should mention about an important NGO, which is ICOMOS to highlight its very valuable charters on the use of tangible cultural heritages within the context of different parameters. Cultural tourism is one those which is in strong interaction with the heritage sites and monuments. Please refer to ICOMOS “Charter of Cultural Tourism” which is made in 1994 and “Eighth Draft, for Adoption by ICOMOS at the 12tnGeneral Assembly,Mexico, October 1999”. We like to quote the following from the Eighth Draft as follows:

  • Principle 1 – Since domestic and international tourism is among the foremost vehicles for cultural exchange, conservation should provide responsible and well managed opportunities for members of the host community and visitors to experience and understand that commu nity’s heritage and culture at first hand.
  • Principle 2 – The relationship between Heritage Places and Tourism is dynamic and may involve conflicting values. it should be managed in a sustainable way for present and future generations.
  • Principle 3 – Conservation and Tourism Planning for Heritage Places should ensure that the Visitor Experience would be worthwhile, satisfy ing and enjoyable.
  • Principle 4 – Host communities and indigenous peoples should be involved in planning for conservation and tourism.
  • Principle 5 – Tourism and conservation activities should benefit the host community.
  • Principle 6 – Tourism promotion programs should protect and en hance Natural and Cultural Heritage characteristics.

SAFRANBOLU AS A GEM CITY By her around 1200 registered historic monuments, Safranbolu ranks third afterIstanbulandBursawhile second percentagewise (2%) afterIstanbul, only. Los ing all of her economic functions like transportation services, industry and agriculture, Safranbolu turned to an abandoned settlement from 1920s until 1970s. Due to many reasons, it was almost fossilized until its being rediscover.

Number of Tourists

Average 16% of the stays are by foreigners. The Office of Tourism of Safran bolu estimates that excursionists as almost four times of the lodgings. There fore, as a rough estimate Safranbolu will attract around 700 000 tourists in 2008.

Number of Hotel Beds

Between 1999 and 2007, while the number of hotel beds is increased 3.15 times, the number of tourist lodging is increased only 2.56 times. This of course puts the hotels under the pressure of tougher competition. From the same fig ures, we find the occupancy rate of hotel beds in Safranbolu in 2007 as 19%, which is very low in all respects.

Monthly Distribution of Tourists

If we look at the distribution of beds into various categories, we see that 4 city hotels with 2-3 stars have total 371 beds, either Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Municipality licensed renovated historic 55 mansions have total 1280 beds which we will refer later on and 26 family operated guest houses have total 335 beds, presently (Source: District Movement of Safranbolu). In Exhibit 3, we show the distribution of lodgings along the months as average of recent four years. The irregularities in the distribution of the lodgings of local tourists are caused by the opening and closing of schools as well as religious holidays. CONSERVATION OF SAFRANBOLU Safranbolu has a unique difference than almost all of the UNESCO World Heri tage Sites inTurkey. ExceptIstanbul, all others are mostly natural or cultural sites and monuments where there is no social life exists. This is the advantage of Safranbolu where you can experience the daily life, the traditions as well ass the intangible heritage of the host community. On the other hand, this creates a real burden into the restoration process. Any restoration project has to consider human values like its social life and culture. On the other hand, Safranbolu is unique with her completely preserved physical values like, streets with walls and pavements, shops, tanneries, baths, houses with gardens, etc. In short, not only individual built also complete cityscape has been inherited. All these had been the reasons for the selection as World Heritage by UNESCO. Not only the governing body and executives of Safranbolu but also the tourism actors should care these delicate characteristics. The main aim of this paper is to high light the interaction of tourism and cultural heritage by discussing the devel opment of tourism in Safranbolu. The inventory of the historic buildings was published in Official Gazette in 1987 and the legislative frame has been put into force after the decree of theMunicipalityofSafranboluwas made in 1975. The very first project was real­ized as the façade and roof restoration in two streets and Yemeniciler Arastası of Safranbolu by the finance of the Ministry of Culture in 1994. As we stated above, TTOK had put Havuzlu Asmazlar Mansion in service as a hotel with a restaurant in same years. In the last 10 years, the restoration of almost all public and religious building have been completed and presented to the service. Par allel to the activities of the governmental organizations, many private investors bought important amount of historic mansions and renovated the m for touris tic use. The number of mansions, which are in service, is 55 with a lodging ca pacity of 1280 beds as of 2008. Unfortunately, the development of tourism has brought some bad effects on restoration when only the market parameters were uncontrollably effective. Only with a simple calculation, we can find out that the average number of beds in restored mansions is around 23. We know from the district registrations that the average number of family was 5 – 6 until 20th Century. This indicates mass tourism and its severe effects on historic monuments. We can not only blame on the hosts but also on the travel agents or tourism related commercial understanding, you should refer to the photos of Beypazarı where the lost wooden parts of old mansions have been imitated by brown paints on white plasters. Commercialization of tourism had also affected the central business district of historic Safranbolu, once it was all related to the processing of leather goods made by the famous tanneries of Safranbolu. There are only one or two sam ples left after all turned to souvenir shops where simple products which are made either inChina or India. All the characteristics of the business district have been lost and unfortunately, no valuable solution has been put into. Türker’s another survey was on host communities perceptions related to tourism and tourists (Türker, 2006). From this survey, we know that the host community is disturbed of higher living expenses and real estate prices. This is a serious trouble for the historic district of Safranbolu. Present1y, about 5 – 6 000 people live in the historic houses of Safranbolu. This create a very genuine social life in the historic district. Unfortunately, tourism brings not only posi tive impacts but also negative effects on the host community. if these problems will not be sol ve d, the host community will most probably leave its place either to higher income groups or to commercial function in which hotels and other tourism related services will be majority. Eventually, the historic district will lose its authentic social characteristics and may turn to a theater’s stage. CONCLUSION Presently, UNESCO Turkey National Committee is working on the Manage­ment of Heritage Sites, which need to have been composed of multidisciplinary and unbound members to optimize the objectives of various actors seeking the values of human being. Any piecemeal approach to the solution of problems will only harm the historic sites. Even accepting that tourism injects valuable sources for the conservation and restoration, the tourism activities should be orchestrated by a special managerial committee in historic sites.
totally agree almost disagree No answer Total
IMPACTS OF TOURISM agree
n % n % n % n % n %
Increase in noise and in the 47 15 101 32 122 38 47 15 317 100
population of the city
Corruption in family relations 36 11 68 22 169 53 44 14 317 100
Increase in employment 138 44 119 38 27 8 33 10 317 100
opportunities
Increase in good manners 74 23 138 44 64 20 41 13 317 100
Corruption in morality 31 10 109 34 136 43 41 13 317 100
Corruption in tradition and 31 10 99 31 138 44 49 15 317 100
customs
Increase in infrastructure 77 24 141 45 53 17 46 14 317 100
standards
Commercialism in handicrafts 159 50 96 30 25 8 37 12 317 100
Cultural conflicts between the
local people and visitors due to 38 12 113 36 116 37 50 15 317 100
the disrespectful behaviors of
Spoilage of cultural heritage 28 9 46 15 191 60 52 16 317 100
related to touristic activities
Pollution in natural resources 27 9 83 26 152 48 55 17 317 100
Inadequacy of public utility 41 13 62 20 170 54 43 13 317 100
services
Increase in crime in the city 22 7 68 22 172 54 55 17 317 100
Increase in social activities 126 40 107 34 27 8 57 18 317 100
Increase in investment 118 37 119 37 37 12 43 14 317 100
Increase in traffic jam 57 18 113 35 94 30 53 17 317 100
Increase in cast of living 133 42 106 34 33 10 45 14 317 100
Increase in the cast of land and 168 53 83 26 29 9 37 12 317 100
real estates
People became more materialist 165 52 88 28 24 8 40 12 317 100

REFERENCES Jurowski, C. Uysal, M., Williams, D. R. (1997). A Theoretical Analysis of Host Community Resident Reactions to Tourism, Journal of Travel Research, XXXVI, 2: 3-11. Lindberg, K., Johnson, R. L. (1997), The Economic Values of Tourism’s Social Impact, Annals of Tourism Research, XXIV, 1: 90-116. Hernandez, S. A., Cohen, J., Garcia, H. L. (1996), Residents’ Attitudes toward an Instant Resort Enclave, Annals of Tourism Research, XXIII, 4: 755-779. Choy, D.].L. (1991). Tourism Planning: The Case for Market Failure, Tourism Management XI: 313-330. Bull, A. (1991). The Economics of Travel and Tourism, Longman Cheshire,Melbourne. Brunt, P., Courtney, P. (1999). Host Perceptions of Socio-cultural Impacts, Annals of Tourism Research, XXVI, 3: 493-515. Ashworth, G. J. (2000), TheTourist-HistoricCity: Retrospect and Prospect of Managing the Heritage City. Pergamon,Amsterdam. McKercher, B., Cros, H. (2002). Cultural Tourism: The Partnership Between Tourism and Cultural Heritage Management. THHP,New York WTO (2000). Cultural Heritage and Tourism Development: A Report on the International Conference on Cultural Tourism,Madrid. * The 4th World Conference for Graduate Research in Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure, 22-27 April 2008,Antalya,Turkey